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Behaviorism

December 7, 2018 0 Comment

Chapter 1
Behaviorism: A school of thought that defines psychology as the scientific study of observable behavior
focus on stimulus-response relationships
Gestalt psychology: A school of thought rooted in the idea that the whole (perception) is greater than the sum of its parts (sensation).

Reaction to structuralism and functionalism-the whole is greater than the sum of the parts
Freud Psychoanalysis: Theory of personality and method of psychotherapy, both of which assume that out motives are largely unconscious
Proposed existence of unconscience and attempted to explain personality motivation and mental disorders.

Skinner:
Organism tend to repeat responses that lead to positive responses
Humanistic revolt: An approach to personality that focuses on the self, subjective experience, and the capacity for fulfillment.

Humans are basically good; humans are driven towards personal growth;disturbances as result of having needs blocked
Cognitive and Physiological Psychology:
Electrical stimulation of parts of brains elicit different emotional response; Connection between biochemical and psychological effect
Evolutionary Psychology:
Examines befavioral process in terms of adaption value for a species over the coutse of many generation
Multicultural Psychology:
Study how culture is transmitted through socialization practices and how culture colors one’s view of the world;Understanding others from their point of view
Chapter 2
Neuron: Nerve cells that serve as the building blocks of the nervous system
Dendrite: Extensions from the cell body of a neuron that receive incoming impulses
Axon: Extensions of the cell body of a neuron that sends impulses to other neurons
Myelin sheath : A layer of fatty cells that is tightly wrapped around the axon to insulate it and speed the movement of electrical impulses
Action potential: An electrical impulse that surges though an axon, caused by an influx of positive ions in the neuron
Synapse: The junction between the axon terminal of one neuron and the dendrites of another
Acetylcholine: A neutotransmitter found throughout the nervous system that links the motor neurons and muscles
Endorphins: A morphinelike neurotransmitter that is produced in the brain and is linked to pain control and pleasure
Central nervus system (structure): The network of nerves contained within the brain and spinal cord
Peripheral nervous system: The network of nerves that radiate from the central nervous sestem to the rest of the body.The PNS comprises the somatic and autonomic nervous systems
Sensory Neurons: Neutons that send signals from the senses, skin, muscles, and internal organs to the central nervous system
Interneurons: Central nervous system neurons that connect sensory inputs and motor outputs
Motor neurons: Motion-producing neurons that transmit commands from the central nervous system to the muscles, glands, and organs
Skeletal nervous system:
Autonomic nervous system: The branch of the peripheral nervous system that connects the CNS to the involuntary muscles, organs, and glands
Sympathetic nervous system: A branch of the autonomic nervous system that controls the involuntary activities of various organs and mobilizes the body for fight or flight–that heightens arousal and energizes the body for action
Parasympathetic nervous system: A branch of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body and conserves energy
Endocrine system: A collection of ductless glands that regulate aspects of growth, reproduction, metabolism, and begavior by secreting hormones
Hormones: Chemical messengers secreted from endocrine glands, into the bloodstream, to various organs throughout the body
Pituitary gland: A tiny gland in the brain that regulates growth and stimulates hormones in other endocrine glands at the command of the hypothalamus
Brainstem: The inner core of the brain that connects to the spinal cord and contains the medulla, pons, and reticular formation
Medulla: A brainstem structure that controls vital involuntary functions
Reticular formation: A group of nerve cells in the brainstem that help to control sleep, arousal, and attention
Cerebellum: A primitive brainstem structure that controls balance and coordinates complex voluntary movements
Limbic system: A set of loosely connected structures in the brain that help to regulate motivation, emotion, and memory
Amygdala: A limbic structure that controls fear, anger, and aggression
Hypothalmus: A tiny limbic structure in the brain that helps regulate the autonomic nervous system, endocrine glands, emotions, and basic drives
Cerebral cortex: The outermost covering of the brain, largely responsible for higher-order mental processes
4 lobes and their functions:
Motor cortex: The area of the cortex that sends impulses to voluntary muscles
Sensory cortex:
Broca area: A region in the left hemisphere of the brain that directs the muscle movements in the production of speech
Wernicke’s Area: A region in the left hemisphere of the brain that is involved in the comprehension of language
Corpus Callosum: A bundle of nerve fibers that connects the left and right hemispheres
Split brain studies: A surgically produced condition in which the corpus callosum is severed, thus cutting the link between the left and right hemispheres of the brain
Chapter 3
Sensation: The processes by which our sense organs receive information from the environment
Perception: The processes by which people select, organize, and interpret sensations
Absolute threshold: The smallest amount of stimulation that can be detected
Weber’s law:The principle that the just-noticeable difference of a stimulus is a constant proportion despite variations in intensity
Sensory adaptation: A decline in sensitivity to a stimulus as a result of constant exposure
Wavelength:
Hue
Intensity
Pupil: The small round hole in the iris of the eye through which light passes
Iris: The ring of muscle tissue that gives eyes their color and controls the size of the pupil
Lens: A transparent structure in the eye that focuses light on the retina
Accomodation: In Piaget’s theory, the process of modifying existing cognitive structures in response to new information.Also, the visual process by which lenses become rounded for viewing nearby objects and flatter for viewing remote objects
Retina: The rear multilayer part of the eye where rods and cones convert light into neural impulses
Rods: Rod-shape photoreceptor cells in the retina that are highly sensitive to light
Cones: Cone-shape photoreceptor cells in the retina that are sensitive to color
Optic nerve: The pathway that carries visual information from the eyeball to the brain
Blind spot: A part of the retina through which the optic nerve passes. Lacking rods and cones, this spot is not responsive to light
Audition: The sense of hearing
Frequency:
Pitch:
Retinal disparity: The difference between two images we see, the greater the difference, the closer the object is to us
Relative brightness: Dimmer obgects appear more distant
Perceptual set: The effects of prior experience and expectations on interpretations of sensory input
Gestalt: “Form” or “Whole”
Figure-ground: The organization of the visual field into obgects (figures) taht stand out from their surroundings (ground)
Grouping:
Proximity: we group close figures together
Similarity: If fiqures are similar to each other we group them together
Continuity: We percieve smooth, continues patterns rather than dicontinues ones
Closure: If a figure has gaps, we complete it by filling in the gaps to create a complete whole object
Binocular cues:
Monocular cues: Distance cues, such as linear perspective, that enable us to perceive depth with one eye
Convergence: A binocular cue for depth perception involving the turning inward of the eyes as an object gets closer
Interposition: Nearby objects partially blick our view of more distant objects
Relative height: Higher objects appear more distant
Relative motion: When we move, object at different distances change thier relative positions in out visual image with the closest moving fastest
Linear Perspective: We percieve the converging of what we know to be parallel lines as indication an increase of distance
Chapter 4
Consciousness: An awareness of the sensations, thoughts and feelings that one is attending to at a given moment
Selective attention: The ability to focus awareness on a single stimulus to the exclusion of other stimuli, as in the cocktail-party phenomenon
Circadian rhythym: A biological cycle, such as sleeping and waking, that occurs approximately every twenty-four hours
REM sleep: The rapid-eye-movement stage of sleep associated with dreaming
Stages of sleep and brain waves involved:
Insomnia: An inability to fall asleep, stay asleep, or get the amount of sleep needed to function during the day
Narcolepsy: A sleep disorder characterized by irresistable and sudden attacks of REM sleep during the day
Psychoactive drug: A chemical that alters perceptions, thoughts, moods, or behavior
Tolerance:
Withdrawal:
Dependence: A physiological addiction in which a drug is needed to prevent symptoms of withdrawal
Depressants: A class of drugs that slow down activity in the central nervous system (e.g., alcohol, barbiturates)
Stimulants: A class of drugs that excite the central nervous system and energize behavior (e.g., amphetamines, cocaine)
Hallucinogens: Psychedelic drugs that distort perceptions and cause hallucinations (e.g., LSD, marijuana)
Sleep apnea: A disorder in which a person repeatedly stops breathing during sleep and awakens gasping for air
Night terrors: When a person jolts abruptly from a deep sleep in a state of panic, and gives off a loud, bloodcurdling scream
Manifest content: According to Freud, the conscious dream content that is remembered in the morning
Latent content: According to Freud, the unconscious, censored meaning of a dream
Hypnosis: Attention-focusing procedures in which changes in a person’s behavior or mental state are suggested
LSD: One of the most known elicit Hallucinogens
Barbiturates: sedative
Opiates: A class of highly addictive drugs that depress neural activity and provide temporary relief from pain and anxiety (e.g., heroin, morphine)
Amphetamines: stimulant
Hallucination: Sensory experiences that occur in the absence of actual stimulation
By: Travis Wonders
Chapter 1
Behaviorism: A school of thought that defines psychology as the scientific study of observable behavior
focus on stimulus-response relationships
Gestalt psychology: A school of thought rooted in the idea that the whole (perception) is greater than the sum of its parts (sensation).

Reaction to structuralism and functionalism-the whole is greater than the sum of the parts
Freud Psychoanalysis: Theory of personality and method of psychotherapy, both of which assume that out motives are largely unconscious
Proposed existence of unconscience and attempted to explain personality motivation and mental disorders.

Skinner:
Organism tend to repeat responses that lead to positive responses
Humanistic revolt: An approach to personality that focuses on the self, subjective experience, and the capacity for fulfillment.

Humans are basically good; humans are driven towards personal growth;disturbances as result of having needs blocked
Cognitive and Physiological Psychology:
Electrical stimulation of parts of brains elicit different emotional response; Connection between biochemical and psychological effect
Evolutionary Psychology:
Examines befavioral process in terms of adaption value for a species over the coutse of many generation
Multicultural Psychology:
Study how culture is transmitted through socialization practices and how culture colors one’s view of the world;Understanding others from their point of view
Chapter 2
Neuron: Nerve cells that serve as the building blocks of the nervous system
Dendrite: Extensions from the cell body of a neuron that receive incoming impulses
Axon: Extensions of the cell body of a neuron that sends impulses to other neurons
Myelin sheath : A layer of fatty cells that is tightly wrapped around the axon to insulate it and speed the movement of electrical impulses
Action potential: An electrical impulse that surges though an axon, caused by an influx of positive ions in the neuron
Synapse: The junction between the axon terminal of one neuron and the dendrites of another
Acetylcholine: A neutotransmitter found throughout the nervous system that links the motor neurons and muscles
Endorphins: A morphinelike neurotransmitter that is produced in the brain and is linked to pain control and pleasure
Central nervus system (structure): The network of nerves contained within the brain and spinal cord
Peripheral nervous system: The network of nerves that radiate from the central nervous sestem to the rest of the body.The PNS comprises the somatic and autonomic nervous systems
Sensory Neurons: Neutons that send signals from the senses, skin, muscles, and internal organs to the central nervous system
Interneurons: Central nervous system neurons that connect sensory inputs and motor outputs
Motor neurons: Motion-producing neurons that transmit commands from the central nervous system to the muscles, glands, and organs
Skeletal nervous system:
Autonomic nervous system: The branch of the peripheral nervous system that connects the CNS to the involuntary muscles, organs, and glands
Sympathetic nervous system: A branch of the autonomic nervous system that controls the involuntary activities of various organs and mobilizes the body for fight or flight–that heightens arousal and energizes the body for action
Parasympathetic nervous system: A branch of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body and conserves energy
Endocrine system: A collection of ductless glands that regulate aspects of growth, reproduction, metabolism, and begavior by secreting hormones
Hormones: Chemical messengers secreted from endocrine glands, into the bloodstream, to various organs throughout the body
Pituitary gland: A tiny gland in the brain that regulates growth and stimulates hormones in other endocrine glands at the command of the hypothalamus
Brainstem: The inner core of the brain that connects to the spinal cord and contains the medulla, pons, and reticular formation
Medulla: A brainstem structure that controls vital involuntary functions
Reticular formation: A group of nerve cells in the brainstem that help to control sleep, arousal, and attention
Cerebellum: A primitive brainstem structure that controls balance and coordinates complex voluntary movements
Limbic system: A set of loosely connected structures in the brain that help to regulate motivation, emotion, and memory
Amygdala: A limbic structure that controls fear, anger, and aggression
Hypothalmus: A tiny limbic structure in the brain that helps regulate the autonomic nervous system, endocrine glands, emotions, and basic drives
Cerebral cortex: The outermost covering of the brain, largely responsible for higher-order mental processes
4 lobes and their functions:
Motor cortex: The area of the cortex that sends impulses to voluntary muscles
Sensory cortex:
Broca area: A region in the left hemisphere of the brain that directs the muscle movements in the production of speech
Wernicke’s Area: A region in the left hemisphere of the brain that is involved in the comprehension of language
Corpus Callosum: A bundle of nerve fibers that connects the left and right hemispheres
Split brain studies: A surgically produced condition in which the corpus callosum is severed, thus cutting the link between the left and right hemispheres of the brain
Chapter 3
Sensation: The processes by which our sense organs receive information from the environment
Perception: The processes by which people select, organize, and interpret sensations
Absolute threshold: The smallest amount of stimulation that can be detected
Weber’s law:The principle that the just-noticeable difference of a stimulus is a constant proportion despite variations in intensity
Sensory adaptation: A decline in sensitivity to a stimulus as a result of constant exposure
Wavelength:
Hue
Intensity
Pupil: The small round hole in the iris of the eye through which light passes
Iris: The ring of muscle tissue that gives eyes their color and controls the size of the pupil
Lens: A transparent structure in the eye that focuses light on the retina
Accomodation: In Piaget’s theory, the process of modifying existing cognitive structures in response to new information.Also, the visual process by which lenses become rounded for viewing nearby objects and flatter for viewing remote objects
Retina: The rear multilayer part of the eye where rods and cones convert light into neural impulses
Rods: Rod-shape photoreceptor cells in the retina that are highly sensitive to light
Cones: Cone-shape photoreceptor cells in the retina that are sensitive to color
Optic nerve: The pathway that carries visual information from the eyeball to the brain
Blind spot: A part of the retina through which the optic nerve passes. Lacking rods and cones, this spot is not responsive to light
Audition: The sense of hearing
Frequency:
Pitch:
Retinal disparity: The difference between two images we see, the greater the difference, the closer the object is to us
Relative brightness: Dimmer obgects appear more distant
Perceptual set: The effects of prior experience and expectations on interpretations of sensory input
Gestalt: “Form” or “Whole”
Figure-ground: The organization of the visual field into obgects (figures) taht stand out from their surroundings (ground)
Grouping:
Proximity: we group close figures together
Similarity: If fiqures are similar to each other we group them together
Continuity: We percieve smooth, continues patterns rather than dicontinues ones
Closure: If a figure has gaps, we complete it by filling in the gaps to create a complete whole object
Binocular cues:
Monocular cues: Distance cues, such as linear perspective, that enable us to perceive depth with one eye
Convergence: A binocular cue for depth perception involving the turning inward of the eyes as an object gets closer
Interposition: Nearby objects partially blick our view of more distant objects
Relative height: Higher objects appear more distant
Relative motion: When we move, object at different distances change thier relative positions in out visual image with the closest moving fastest
Linear Perspective: We percieve the converging of what we know to be parallel lines as indication an increase of distance
Chapter 4
Consciousness: An awareness of the sensations, thoughts and feelings that one is attending to at a given moment
Selective attention: The ability to focus awareness on a single stimulus to the exclusion of other stimuli, as in the cocktail-party phenomenon
Circadian rhythym: A biological cycle, such as sleeping and waking, that occurs approximately every twenty-four hours
REM sleep: The rapid-eye-movement stage of sleep associated with dreaming
Stages of sleep and brain waves involved:
Insomnia: An inability to fall asleep, stay asleep, or get the amount of sleep needed to function during the day
Narcolepsy: A sleep disorder characterized by irresistable and sudden attacks of REM sleep during the day
Psychoactive drug: A chemical that alters perceptions, thoughts, moods, or behavior
Tolerance:
Withdrawal:
Dependence: A physiological addiction in which a drug is needed to prevent symptoms of withdrawal
Depressants: A class of drugs that slow down activity in the central nervous system (e.g., alcohol, barbiturates)
Stimulants: A class of drugs that excite the central nervous system and energize behavior (e.g., amphetamines, cocaine)
Hallucinogens: Psychedelic drugs that distort perceptions and cause hallucinations (e.g., LSD, marijuana)
Sleep apnea: A disorder in which a person repeatedly stops breathing during sleep and awakens gasping for air
Night terrors: When a person jolts abruptly from a deep sleep in a state of panic, and gives off a loud, bloodcurdling scream
Manifest content: According to Freud, the conscious dream content that is remembered in the morning
Latent content: According to Freud, the unconscious, censored meaning of a dream
Hypnosis: Attention-focusing procedures in which changes in a person’s behavior or mental state are suggested
LSD: One of the most known elicit Hallucinogens
Barbiturates: sedative
Opiates: A class of highly addictive drugs that depress neural activity and provide temporary relief from pain and anxiety (e.g., heroin, morphine)
Amphetamines: stimulant
Hallucination: Sensory experiences that occur in the absence of actual stimulation
Bibliography
Human Relations and Motavation copyright 1975
McGraw Hill Book co.